“Cal un acord polític que determine el volum de recursos que permeta finançar necessitats de despesa de totes les CCAA”


09/11/2017 | Vicent Soler, conseller d’Hisenda i Model Econòmic de la Generalitat Valenciana

– Per què l’actual sistema de finançament del País Valencià pateix una discriminació i rep menys recursos que la mitjana per habitant?

La discriminació té el seu origen en el procés de traspàs de competències després d’aprovar-se l’Estatut d’Autonomia. En dit procés, es va seguir el criteri de cost efectiu per a valorar els serveis traspassats, davall la premissa que l’Estat gastava de forma equitativa en tot el territori espanyol. No obstant això, conforme ha existit informació pública que ha permés la comparació per CCAA, s’ha anat posant de manifest que la despesa pública i el desplegament dels serveis públics en la Comunitat era clarament inferior al d’altres regions.

Un segon factor que ha influït en les diferències en el finançament entre CCAA ha sigut el moment en què es va produir el traspàs de les competències de Sanitat i Educació. La Comunitat Valenciana va tindre transferides des de mitjans dels anys vuitanta les dites competències, la qual cosa va suposar que la Comunitat Valenciana assumira la major part del cost associat al desplegament de l’Estat de Benestar que es va produir en eixos anys. Al contrari, en els territoris on dites competències no estaven transferides, el cost ho va assumir el Govern central i en el moment del traspàs, dit cost es va tindre en compte en la valoració de les transferències i, per tant, en el finançament associat.

Les diferències, lluny de corregir-se, s’han perpetuat en les successives reformes del model de finançament a través del manteniment d’un status quo.

 – Quines opcions hi ha de revertir aquesta situació?

La correcció d’aquesta discriminació passa necessàriament per l’eliminació del status quo i per l’adopció d’un criteri de distribució dels recursos del model que es base en les necessitats de despesa, definides de forma objectiva i transparent. D’aquesta manera, les úniques diferències que podrien existir en el finançament per càpita entre CCAA serien les derivades de factors objectivament determinats i quantificats, principalment factors demogràfics o físics.

En aquest sentit l’informe del comité d’experts per a la reforma del SFA, de juliol de 2017 defén l’eliminació del status quo i la distribució dels recursos del model destinats al finançament dels SPF d’acord amb un indicador de població ajustada.

No cal oblidar, no obstant això, que en realitat totes les CCAA de règim comú han patit una insuficiència generalitzada de recursos en els anys de crisi per al sosteniment dels SPF. Per això és necessari, tal com es posa de manifest en l’informe del comité d’experts per a la reforma del SFA de juliol de 2017, que en el disseny del nou model de finançament es partisca d’un acord polític que determine el volum de recursos que permeta finançar les necessitats de despesa de totes les CCAA en el nivell acordat.

– Com afecta a l’economia i la societat valencianes?

A fi de garantir un accés als serveis públics equiparable a la resta de l’Estat, la Generalitat ha de destinar una proporció major dels seus recursos per a finançar-los. Una proporció major que altres CCAA millor finançades. Gràcies al gran esforç financer de la Generalitat, la despesa en els serveis públics tradicionals, sanitat i educació, s’enquadren entorn de la mitjana de les CCAA de règim comú. No obstant això, eixe esforç financer ha deixat sense marge al País Valencià per a desplegar en igualtat de condicions el sistema de protecció a la dependència, així com per a poder realitzar polítiques actives en matèria de desenvolupament econòmic i social, innovació i impuls del model econòmic.

Aquestes darreres polítiques son imprescindibles en una económia el teixit empresarial de la qual està caracteritzat per pimes i, fins i tot, microempreses, la qual cosa fa que el canvi d’estrategies competitives empresarials, necessiten dels poders públics per a fer mes viable el canvi. La manca de recursos es un obstacle seriòs per a fer el canvi adecuadament.

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Sobre l'autor

Vicent Soler, conseller d’Hisenda i Model Econòmic de la Generalitat Valenciana.