El canvi en el model de finançament amb independència del procés sobiranista català


11/04/2014 | Núria Bosch

A banda del procés sobiranista l’objectiu és tenir una Hisenda pròpia, un model de finançament semblant al que tenen les comunitats forals. Aquest es el camí. S’han de posar les peces per arribar a aquest objectiu, ja que també la Hisenda pròpia és una estructura indispensable per a un futur estat català.

Ara bé, mentrestant ens hem d’anar finançant amb el model actual. Per tant, també cal preguntar-se quins aspectes d’aquest model s’haurien de reformar perquè beneficiessin a Catalunya.

Un qüestió rellevant seria aconseguir el compliment del principi d’ordinalitat, és a dir, que Catalunya amb els recursos que li ofereix el model de finançament estès en el lloc que li correspon per la seva riquesa i capacitat fiscal. Per exemple, tal com s’observa a la Taula 1, el 2011, que és el darrer any que hi ha dades liquidades del model de finançament, per la seva capacitat fiscal en termes relatius Catalunya està en la tercera posició (després de Madrid i les Illes Balears). En canvi, els recursos que li proporciona el model de finançament la col·loquen en la dècima posició. Hi ha un canvi de posició relativa molt important. Per la seva capacitat fiscal Catalunya se situa un 19% per sobre de la mitjana dels recursos fiscals de les comunitats autònomes. En canvi, la redistribució de recursos que implica el model de finançament la situa ni tan sols a la mitjana, està un 1% per sota. Hi ha una pèrdua de recursos important. Passa també a Balears i a Madrid. Les comunitats més riques pateixen un procés de redistribució excessiu. En canvi, hi ha d’altres comunitats que segueixen el procés invers, per exemple, Extremadura. Pels recursos que genera està un 25% per sota la mitjana. Això vol dir que ha de rebre recursos per millorar la seva posició,  però cal preguntar-se si la redistribució no es excessiva quan després d’aquesta està un 15% per sobre de la mitjana.

Si es complís el principi d’ordinalitat, Catalunya hauria d’estar a la tercera posició tan abans com després de la redistribució que implica el model de finançament autonòmic. Lògicament amb els mecanismes redistributius hauria de perdre recursos a favor de territoris amb menys nivell de renda, però hauria de mantenir la mateixa posició relativa. A d’altres països europeus com per exemple Alemanya, el principi d’ordinalitat està establert i no hi ha canvi d’ordre.

De totes maneres, el sistema es bastant arbitrari, aquest sobreanivellament no es dóna sempre. Per exemple, una comunitat rica com Aragó, està un 15% per sobre la mitjana en capacitat fiscal i encara guanya posicions en recursos després de la redistribució quan n’hauria de perdre. El País Valencià està un 6% per sota la mitjana en capacitat fiscal i es queda en la mateixa posició relativa pel que fa als recursos que li proporciona el model de finançament, quan hauria de guanyar posicions.

Aquestes arbitrarietats en part s’expliquen perquè quan es van traspassar les competències hi havia comunitats on la presència de l’estat era més baixa, i al passar-se els recursos per al seu finançament en funció del cost efectiu dels serveis que es traspassaven, es quedaren amb menys recursos en termes relatius que altres territoris on la presència de serveis públics estatals era major. Catalunya n’és un exemple. Aquesta fotografia s’ha mantingut en el temps, ja que sempre que s’ha negociat un model de finançament s’ha conservat l’estatus  quo.

Per concloure i atenent a les dades, si el principi d’ordinalitat es complís Catalunya, entre d’altres comunitats, guanyaria en recursos.

De les dades mostrades es veu com l’arc mediterrani és el més perjudicat pel sistema de finançament: les Illes Balears, Catalunya, El País Valencià, Múrcia… Si s’analitzen les balances fiscals també totes aquestes comunitats presenten dèficits fiscals excessius. Són les comunitats autònomes més castigades.

 

Capacitat fiscal

Total recursos del model

Catalunya

119,1

99,4

Galícia

91,2

110,9

Andalusia

79,9

93,9

Astúries

106,6

112,6

Cantàbria

114,4

124,4

La Rioja

103,2

120,7

Múrcia

83,5

93,1

País Valencià

93,7

93,6

Aragó

114,6

116,3

Castella-La Manxa

85,4

103,4

Canàries

42,2

88,3

Extremadura

76,2

114,5

Illes Balears

121,7

100,8

Madrid

134,2

95,4

Castella i Lleó

101,5

116,3

Total

100,0

100,0

 

Taula 1. Índex de capacitat fiscal i de recursos totals resultat del model de finançament, any 2011. (Índex calculat en funció de la mitjana per habitant) Font: Departament d’Economia i Coneixement. Generalitat de Catalunya

 

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Sobre l'autor

Núria Bosch. Catedràtica d'economia pública i investigadora de l'Institut d'Economia de Barcelona. Universitat de Barcelona.