“La proliferació de l’habitatge vacacional a Barcelona no és un problema exclusivament del turisme, forma part del sistema econòmic”


01/12/2017 | Soledad Morales, directora acadèmica del Màster Universitari de Turisme Sostenible i TIC de la UOC

– Què suposa parlar de sostenibilitat turística en una ciutat com Barcelona?

Interpel·lar-se sempre tenint en compte que el turisme es dedica a importar “turistes” i no a exportar mercaderies, és a dir, es dedica a posar a l’abast del gaudiment de tothom (malgrat i que no sempre és així) recursos que són propis. Apostar per la sostenibilitat turística, doncs, significa posar tant als turistes com als ciutadans al centre del debat i de les preocupacions de les institucions, però també reforçar la democràcia i la governança ciutadana, juntament amb la responsabilitat i l’eficiència empresarial. I per què no, interpel·lar-se també sobre la conveniència o no de seguir estratègies per al decreixement si es veuen necessàries. Aquesta base podria permetre generar estratègies col·lectives que facin possible que el turisme esdevingui una activitat dirigida a millorar la qualitat de vida de les persones, siguin turistes o residents, una finalitat última alhora necessària com disruptiva pel canvi d’enfocament al que ens obliga.

– Hi ha consens entre operadors turístics, entitats i ciutadania per impulsar un turisme sostenible?

Consens n’hi ha, però no sempre es coincideix en el “què s’entén per turisme sostenible” o no sempre hi ha un consens sobre quines són les prioritats per posar-ho en pràctica. En un estudi recent realitzat conjuntament amb la Direcció General de Turisme hem confirmat aquesta realitat, com per exemple que el turisme sostenible encara es confon amb turisme verd o sensible ambientalment, però no pas com un enfocament que uneix amb el mateix nivell d’importància el respecte pel medi ambient, la sensibilitat per les necessitats de la societat i la preocupació per la viabilitat econòmica. Quan siguem capaços de tenir un consens també sobre la seva definició serà més fàcil generar els processos de canvi que són necessaris per veritablement apostar per la sostenibilitat turística de manera global.

– Com hauria de gestionar Barcelona la gran proliferació de l’habitatge vacacional?

Aquesta és una pregunta amb una resposta complexa alhora que senzilla. La proliferació de l’habitatge vacacional correspon, per una banda, a un punt de trobada entre una demanda i una oferta circumscrita a la indústria turística, que pot estar vinculada amb processos de generació d’economies col·laboratives. En aquest cas, aquesta proliferació pot ser gestionada a través d’una regulació/normativa específica (que en alguns casos ja existeix). D’aquesta manera es pot consolidar l’impacte beneficiós que el turisme pot tenir sobre les economies més domèstiques i, fins i tot, millorar l’experiència turística així com la creació d’elements disruptius en el sector. Però, per altra banda, també correspon a processos d’especulació, més globals i de més difícil gestió, la intervenció en les quals és defugida per moltes institucions públiques. I aquí és on rau principalment la dificultat de la gestió dels impactes negatius d’aquesta proliferació. Però no és un problema exclusivament del turisme, forma part del sistema econòmic predominant.

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Sobre l'autor

Soledad Morales, directora acadèmica del Màster Universitari de Turisme Sostenible i TIC de la Universitat Oberta de Catalunya.