“El nord d’Àfrica és un mercat proper a l’Euram, natural i inevitable”


13/09/2017 | Javier Albarracín, Director de Desenvolupament Socioeconòmic de l'Institut Europeu de la Mediterrània (IEMed)

Javier Albarracin

– Quina és la situació actual del negoci entre l’Euroregió de l’Arc Mediterrani i el nord d’Àfrica?

Els països del nord tenen un idiosincràsia i una identitat econòmica força diferenciada els uns dels altres. A més, la cooperació econòmica i comercial entre ells és gairebé nul·la (de fet, la frontera entre el Marroc i Algèria està formalment tancada des del 1994). Això fa que les seves relacions comercials siguin ‘verticals’, és a dir, amb Europa. I més concretament amb el mercats mediterranis de la Unió Europea.

En aquest sentit, les relacions econòmiques del Marroc, Algèria i Tunísia amb l’Euroregió de l’Arc Mediterrani (Euram) no només son intenses, i creixents, sinó que a més són inevitables. Cada vegada més empreses catalanes i valencianes mantenen relacions estables i creixentment sofisticades amb aquests mercats. Hi ha hagut una clara evolució de la simple exportació o importació de productes acabats (tendència que s’intensifica), a una creixent implantació productiva, subcontractació de part de la producció, adquisició d’empreses, implantacions comercials, sofisticació logística, implantació del sector serveis, consecució de concursos públics, etc.

Aquests mercats representen el primer cercle de la internacionalització de les empreses de l’Euram. Això fa que veiem una diversificació, tant dels sector productius que s’interessen per aquests països, com de la mida de les empreses que s’hi interessen. Cada cop empreses més petites i especialitzades es plantegen seriosament fer un salt a aquests mercats.

– Hi ha algun país especialment representatiu?

El país amb el que aquest relació econòmica és més intensa i diversificada és sense cap mena de dubte Marroc, uns dels principals socis comercials de l’Estat espanyol, Catalunya i el País Valencià. L’interès pel mercat algerià ha crescut de forma exponencial els darrers anys, fent que malgrat la dificultat inherents del país pels negocis (aranzels elevats, burocràcia, sistema financer complex….), cada cop més empreses hi exportin a s’hi implantin productivament. Tunísia, per la seva banda, donada la seva dimensió reduïda, els seus 11 milions de persones i la inestabilitat i problemes d’imatge que arrossega des de 2011, ha vist com el seu atractiu de mercat ha minvat els darrers anys, malgrat la qualitat tècnica del seu capital humà local.

– Es pot parlar d’un horitzó comercial canviant als propers mesos de les relacions entre Europa i el Nord d’Àfrica?

No és previsible un canvi significatiu els propers mesos. Malgrat tot, el que sí que estem veient és el reforç d‘una doble tendència a la zona.

Per una part, els importants esforços d’alguns d’aquets mercats per aconseguir una significativa diversificació econòmica. A sectors tradicionals com ara l’agricultura, el turisme o el tèxtil s’hi estan sumant amb èxit d’altres de més valor afegit com ara l’automoció, la logística, l’aeronàutica o l’electrònica. Tunísia, i especialment el Marroc, estan duent a terme important esforços per aconseguir atraure IDE de multinacionals en aquests sectors, amb la pretensió que això provoqui un arrossegament dels seus proveïdors per implantar-se al Nord d’Àfrica.

Aquesta tendència –que està generant èxits molt significatius com ara el desenvolupament del sector automoció al nord del Marroc o del logístic entorn a Tanger Med– està generant important interès (i creixent implicació) de les empreses de l’Euram d’aquests sectors.

I, d’altra banda, també s’està produint un creixent interès d’empreses de països més agressius que volen utilitzar la seva implantació al nord d’Àfrica com a plataforma per accedir a altres mercats, molt especialment Europa. Així, empreses xineses o coreanes s’estan implantant al Nord d’Àfrica, per aprofitar els avantatges competitius d’alguns països (com ara el cost de la mà d’obra o els incentius fiscals i financers a la inversió estrangera sobretot Marroc i Tunísia), per atacar mercats com l’espanyol, l’italià o el francès.

– Què cal que sàpiguen les pimes de l’Euram avui per fer negocis amb el Magreb?

En primer lloc, en el complex context global actual és important que tothom –inclosos els empresaris– visualitzi els països del nord d’Àfrica de forma objectiva. Que s’apropin a ells amb els mateixos paràmetres que analitzarien altres mercats emergents, i que no es deixin arrossegar per eventuals estereotips i problemes d’imatge.

En segon lloc, ser conscients que són mercats emergents veïns i importants per Europa, i per tant també per a l’Euram. De fet, tots tres mercats junts sumen uns 80 milions de persones, amb un creixement conjunt de més d’un milió d’habitants l’any. Malgrat tot, no es poden considerar un mercat, per la manca de col·laboració econòmica horitzontal. Per tant, malauradament, son trs mercats i cadascun s’ha de tractar individualment.

Igualment, el Marroc i Tunísia són economies lliberals on el sector privat juga un paper clau i creixent en el seu desenvolupament. No és així  el cas d’Algèria, on el sector públic encara ocupa un paper predominant a l’economia. Així, en el cas del Marroc i Tunísia, un empresari estranger no necessita cap soci local per poder-s’hi implantar. Si bé, sempre és aconsellable un bon soci local, ja que coneix la idiosincràsia del mercat, però no és obligatori.

I per últim, és important tenir en compte el dinamisme social i econòmic d’aquests països. No son fotografies estancades. Hi ha un rellevant creixement demogràfic, un creixent procés de concentració a les ciutats (amb totes les connotacions de pautes de consum que això implica), una creixent classe mitja (especialment al Marroc i Tunísia), una intensificació de la internacionalització de les seves economies… Són els mercats emergents més propers a l’Euram i, per tant, són els naturals i inevitables.

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Sobre l'autor

Javier Albarracín, Director de Desenvolupament Socioeconòmic de l'Institut Europeu de la Mediterrània (IEMed).